Chimeric Bait Receptor (“CBR”)

Disclaimer: This page is the work of the author with NO input or checking by anyone associated with Hemogenyx. It is my attempt to simplify the concept and present it in a more user friendly way. I have ONLY relied on information taken from public interviews and RNS’s. I may have made assumptions or statements which are wrong and accept no liability for this however I have attempted to keep it as factual as possible.

Identify the Problem

Viruses initially stick to healthy cells through interactions unrelated to fusion proteins. The virus surfs along the fluid surface of the cell and eventually the viral fusion proteins bind to receptor molecules on the cell membrane. With many bacteria the process is the same, the bacteria express a range of proteins which can bind to receptor proteins expressed on the host cell allowing for adhesion. A simple example would be Velcro where the virus has the hooks and the target cell has the loops, but in this instance the Velcro is tightly coupled so that only one type of loop will lock to the matching hook side. If a virus or bacteria has a suitable protein to bind to the protein on the host cell it will connect allowing further infection if not it will carry on to the next cell.

In the above figure you can see a Pathogen and Host Cell found in the human body with SOME of the known receptors, it is human DNA and thus much less likely to mutate or change. There are a limited number of proteins exposed which become the targets used by pathogens to attack the cell. However the spikes or proteins exposed on the bacteria or virus are likely to mutate or change frequently. HOW the virus or bacteria attacks the cell is outside the scope of this page.

Today’s approach to fighting Viruses or Bacteria

There are many approaches that exist today to fight infections which I wont cover in depth, common approaches such as vaccines or CAR-T treatment train the bodys immune system to identify the pathogen directly and attack the cells. CDX hijacks cells in the immune system which otherwise was ignoring the pathogen and binds it to the target allowing it to kill. Other treatments can be toxic, they can break down the cell membrane or interfere with cell division so it cannot spread, some treatments remove the nutrients required by the virus to replicate, others can smother a pathogen so that it simply cannot infect a target cell.

The problem is the bacteria or virus will given time mutate and may overcome the given treatment, antibacterial resistance is becoming a real fear in society and one which will only continue to grow as we run out of working antibiotics. With viruses such as Covid-19 small changes in the spike protein mean that many of the bodies immune system cells which previously were able to detect and kill the cells no longer recognise the pathogen and become much less efficient at killing it having to “re-learn”. Some protection will remain as our immune systems don’t develop just one single antibody and mutations in the virus are likely to be small.

SO.. What makes the Hemogenyx approach special?

Endocytosis is a cellular process in which substances are brought into the cell. The material to be internalised is surrounded by an area of cell membrane, which then buds off inside the cell to form a vesicle containing the ingested material. Basically a human cell expresses a receptor or protein which SOMETHING can bind too, when it binds an Endocytic Receptor is activated triggering Endocytosis where the external SOMETHING is taken inside the cell.

This process can be both positive to allow a cell to absorb nutrients OR it can be harmful as a way for a pathogen to attack a cell. For example, here the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 binds to the ACE2 receptor of the epithelial cell.

In the above image Covid-19 is targeting an Epithelial cell, cells which cover your body, glands and are a key part of the human make up, the Covid-19 cell did not know the type of cell, only that it was able to bind to the ACE2 receptor. CBR is so brilliant and simple because it is simply the process of modifying an immune cell and adding an Endocytic Receptor with bait protein. By doing this instead of the Covid-19 cell infecting a healthy Epithelial Cell where it can replicate and attack the body it instead will be destroyed whilst allowing the immune cell to recycle the receptors.

So What?

Excellent question, as per the CBR RNS Hemogenyx have secured the IP on CBR protecting this concept, as stated previously there are a limited number of stable proteins on human cells which are the target of attack by pathogens both known and future. Whilst its likely new viruses and bacteria will evolve or be discovered its unlikely that many mutations will happen in the human genome allowing new attack vectors from these pathogens. With every iteration of vaccine or antibiotic some of the pathogens will mutate and evolve and become dominant requiring new vaccines and treatments to be developed. This does not apply to CBR, viruses and bacteria will still mutate but ultimately they either can bind to the receptor proteins or they cannot, if not they are non infectious and will not be able to replicate, if they can bind its a crap shoot, either they get lucky and enter a healthy cell or they enter an immune cell and die.

Hemogenyx have applied for a patent which covers most of these proteins, I dont know how many or which and this will only be revealed when the patent is public, but based on the wording of the RNS it sounds like all proteins which are likely to be required to target the vast majority of known viruses today. As a concept its brilliantly simple, why hunt down and engage a virus when you can flood the playing field with enough traps that laws of average will suppress the virus long enough for the immune system to hunt and kill the remainder.

Risks and downsides

This IS A new concept, a new idea and as of yet not proven in vivo (That I know of) let alone anywhere near human trials. Whilst on the surface non-toxic in that it does not attack cells its unknown what side-effects there may be. Because of these unknowns Hemogenyx will have a long road to get FDA approval for human trials and it will require partners and funding. They will have to answer questions such as can the CBR be turned off and what healthy functions of human biology may be interfered with by the expression of these receptors on immune cells.

Potential

The potential for exploitation here is massive, CBR is a platform which can be expanded in theory to combat almost any virus, bacteria or mammalian cells, including cancerous cells. By the very nature of solution each CBR is finely tuned and isolated for a particular pathogen which makes it ideally suited to a pharma industry which is adverse to “cure-all” solutions which can damage profit margins. Because of this finely targeted CBR approach Hemogenyx are in a position to partner with multiple parties with each capable of exploiting CBR for a single indication. With the possibility of off the shelf treatments being developed and no known competitor using this approach there is no upper limit to the potential only limits to resources allowing exploitation of the technology. If the concept becomes widely accepted and adopted by the industry in theory it will not be possible for competitors to simply “tweak” the idea. The patent covers the protein receptors which is the essential part of the Bait in CBR giving Hemogenyx a dominant market position and first mover advantage.
I recommend people listen to a recent interview with Dr Sandler on CBR which is available HERE

Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocytosis
https://quizlet.com/221610439/receptor-mediated-endocytosis-diagram/
https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/pdf/threats-report/How-Germs-Fight-Back-Against-Antibiotics.pdf
https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/What-is-the-difference-Between-a-Phagocyte-Macrophage-Neutrophil-and-Eosinophil.aspx
https://www.lse.co.uk/rns/HEMO/cbr-update-fywrltwvmef20hc.html